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Download Uncertainties in Greenhouse Gas Inventories Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
This book is based on the 2014 Special Issue 124(3) of Climatic Change. It brings together 16 key papers presented at, or produced, subsequent to the 2010 (3rd) International Workshop on Uncertainty in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventories. The Workshop was jointly organized by the Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukraine; the Systems Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences; and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria. This book has been written to enhance understanding of the uncertainty encountered in estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and in dealing with the challenges resulting from those estimates. Such challenges include, but are not limited to i) monitoring emissions; ii) adhering to emission commitments; iii) securing the proper functioning of emission trading markets; and iv) meeting low-carbon or low-GHG futures in the long term. The approaches to addressing uncertainty discussed by all authors attempt to improve national inventories, not only for their own sake but also from a wider, systems analytical perspective that seeks to strengthen their usefulness under a compliance and/or global monitoring and reporting framework. These approaches show the challenges and benefits of including inventory uncertainty in policy analysis and where advances are being made.
Download Accounting for Climate Change Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Uncertainty analysis is a key component of national greenhouse gases inventory analyses. The issues that are raised by the authors in this volume, and the role that uncertainty analysis plays in many of their arguments and/or proposals, highlight the importance of such efforts. Coverage includes: bottom-up versus top-down emission inventory approaches, compliance and verification issues, and the role of uncertainty in emissions trading schemes.
Download Greenhouse Gas Inventories Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
The assessment of greenhouse gases emitted to and removed from the atmosphere is high on the international political and scientific agendas. Growing international concern and cooperation regarding the climate change problem have increased the need for policy-oriented solutions to the issue of uncertainty in, and related to, inventories of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The approaches to addressing uncertainty discussed here reflect attempts to improve national inventories, not only for their own sake but also from a wider, systems analytical perspective — a perspective that seeks to strengthen the usefulness of national inventories under a compliance and/or global monitoring and reporting framework. These approaches demonstrate the benefits of including inventory uncertainty in policy analyses. The authors of the contributed papers show that considering uncertainty helps avoid situations that can, for example, create a false sense of certainty or lead to invalid views of subsystems. This may eventually prevent related errors from showing up in analyses. However, considering uncertainty does not come for free. Proper treatment of uncertainty is costly and demanding because it forces us to make the step from “simple to complex” and only then to discuss potential simplifications. Finally, comprehensive treatment of uncertainty does not offer policymakers quick and easy solutions.
Download Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2001 Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Download Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2000 Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Download Coping with Uncertainty Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Support for addressing the on-going global changes needs solutions for new scientific problems which in turn require new concepts and tools. A key issue concerns a vast variety of irreducible uncertainties, including extreme events of high multidimensional consequences, e.g., the climate change. The dilemma is concerned with enormous costs versus massive uncertainties of extreme impacts. Traditional scientific approaches rely on real observations and experiments. Yet no sufficient observations exist for new problems, and "pure" experiments, and learning by doing may be expensive, dangerous, or impossible. In addition, the available historical observations are often contaminated by past actions, and policies. Thus, tools are presented for the explicit treatment of uncertainties using "synthetic" information composed of available "hard" data from historical observations, the results of possible experiments, and scientific facts, as well as "soft" data from experts' opinions, and scenarios.
Download The Continental-Scale Greenhouse Gas Balance of Europe Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
This book assesses the current greenhouse gas (GHG) monitoring capabilities of Europe, identifies and quantifies the uncertainties involved, and outlines the direction to a continental scale GHG monitoring network. The book uniquely addresses both the methodology of carbon cycle science and the science itself, providing a synthesis of carbon cycle science. The methods included provide the first comprehensive coverage of a full GHG accounting and monitoring system.
Download Uncertainties in the Norwegian Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Download Greenhouse Gases Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Understanding greenhouse gas sources, emissions, measurements, and management is essential for capture, utilization, reduction, and storage of greenhouse gas, which plays a crucial role in issues such as global warming and climate change. Taking advantage of the authors' experience in greenhouse gases, this book discusses an overview of recently developed techniques, methods, and strategies: - A comprehensive source investigation of greenhouse gases that are emitted from hydrocarbon reservoirs, vehicle transportation, agricultural landscapes, farms, non-cattle confined buildings, and so on. - Recently developed detection and measurement techniques and methods such as photoacoustic spectroscopy, landfill-based carbon dioxide and methane measurement, and miniaturized mass spectrometer.
Download Carbon Inventory Methods Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Carbon Inventory Methods Handbook fills the need for a handbook that provides guidelines and methods required for carbon inventory. It provides detailed step-by-step information on sampling procedures, field and laboratory measurements, application of remote sensing and GIS techniques, modeling, and calculation procedures along with sources of data for carbon inventory. The book is driven by a growing need for ‘carbon inventory’ for land use sections such as forests.
Download U.S. Agriculture and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Inventory: 1990-2008 Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
In 2008, agricultural greenhouse gas sources accounted for about 6% of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. The U.S. Agriculture and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Inventory: 1990-2008 was developed to provide a comprehensive assessment of the contribution of U.S. agriculture and forestry to greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration. It provides extensive, in-depth emissions and sinks estimates for livestock, cropland, and forests, as well as energy consumption in livestock and cropland agriculture. Estimates are provided at State, regional, and national scales, categorized by land ownership and management practices where possible. Charts and tables. This is a print on demand edition of an important, hard-to-find publication.
Download Automatic Control, Robotics, and Information Processing Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
This book presents a wide and comprehensive range of issues and problems in various fields of science and engineering, from both theoretical and applied perspectives. The desire to develop more effective and efficient tools and techniques for dealing with complex processes and systems has been a natural inspiration for the emergence of numerous fields of science and technology, in particular control and automation and, more recently, robotics. The contributions gathered here concern the development of methods and algorithms to determine best practices regarding broadly perceived decisions or controls. From an engineering standpoint, many of them focus on how to automate a specific process or complex system. From a tools-based perspective, several contributions address the development of analytic and algorithmic methods and techniques, devices and systems that make it possible to develop and subsequently implement the automation and robotization of crucial areas of human activity. All topics discussed are illustrated with sample applications.
Download Modeling Multi-commodity Trade: Information Exchange Methods Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
This book contains revised versions of papers presented on scientific workshop “Modeling Multi-commodity Trade: Information exchange methods”, which took place in November 2010 atWarsaw University of Technology. It summarizes results of the research work supported so far by scientific grant “Methods and architectures of information interchange for electronic trade on infrastructural markets” (see page xi), and some earlier research work on multi-commodity markets modeling. Though partial results of the research were published earlier, the book gives the most complete view on results of our research in the field of modeling the trade on complex multi-commodity infrastructural markets.
Download Balancing Greenhouse Gas Budgets Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Balancing Greenhouse Gas Budgets: Accounting for Natural and Anthropogenic Flows of CO2 and other Trace Gases provides a synthesis of greenhouse gas budgeting activities across the world. Organized in four sections, including background, methods, case studies and opportunities, it is an interdisciplinary book covering both science and policy. All environments are covered, from terrestrial to ocean, along with atmospheric processes using models, inventories and observations to give a complete overview of greenhouse gas accounting. Perspectives presented give readers the tools necessary to understand budget activities, think critically, and use the framework to carry out initiatives. Written by a combination of experts across career stages, presenting an integrated perspective for graduate students and professionals alike Includes sections authored by those involved in both early and later IPCC assessments Provides an interdisciplinary resource that spans many topics and methodologies in oceanic, land and atmospheric processes
Download Synthesis and Modeling of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Carbon Storage in Agricultural and Forest Systems to Guide Mitigation and Adaptation Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Crop, livestock, and forestry productions systems are important sources and sinks of greenhouses gases, but estimates of the magnitude of gas fluxes are more uncertain than those for other economic sectors such as transportation and electricity generation. Recent improvements in process-level un-derstanding, modeling software, and observational data used for model testing have increased the accuracy of model predictions, but substantial uncertainty remains, particularly regarding the potential for different management practices to mitigate emissions. The chapters in this volume demonstrate that both simple methods and complex models have strengths and limitations depending on stake-holder interest, scale of application, and other factors. Future improvement can be facilitated by or-ganizing model input and testing data into web-accessible databases and by making model algorithms more available and transparent.
Download Canada's Greenhouse Gas Inventory Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
This report represents Canada's official greenhouse gas inventory submission to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It also contains, where possible, relevant supplementary information (including a summary of appropriate methodologies, definitions, emission estimates and emission factors that were used in developing the national & provincial estimates) and an analysis of recent trends in emissions and removals. The inventory is arranged by source sector: energy (fuel combustion, fugitive emissions), industrial processes (minerals, chemicals, metals, other), solvent & other product use, agriculture, land use change & forestry, and waste (disposal on land, waste water handling, incineration, composting). Appendices include an emission summary, detailed methodologies, and data tables.
Download Canada's Greenhouse Gas Inventory Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle