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Download The Continental-Scale Greenhouse Gas Balance of Europe Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
This book assesses the current greenhouse gas (GHG) monitoring capabilities of Europe, identifies and quantifies the uncertainties involved, and outlines the direction to a continental scale GHG monitoring network. The book uniquely addresses both the methodology of carbon cycle science and the science itself, providing a synthesis of carbon cycle science. The methods included provide the first comprehensive coverage of a full GHG accounting and monitoring system.
Download Soil Carbon in Sensitive European Ecosystems Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Soil Carbon in Sensitive European Ecosystems - From Science to Land Management is a comprehensive overview of the latest research in this field drawn together by a network of scientists from across Europe. Soil carbon assessments are crucial at present to our understanding of the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems and our ability to assess implications for the global carbon exchange and its consequences on the future climate. This book focuses primarily on ecosystems and their soil carbon stocks. The book identifies three key sensitive ecosystems within Europe: Mediterranean Forest and Agricultural Systems; Mountains; and Peatland. Contributors include those currently working for the European research programme, COST Action 639 BurnOut (www.cost639.net; 2006-2010). COST Action 639 emerged from a demand from policy makers in Europe for more detailed information on soil carbon dynamics. The cooperation between experts for reporting and experts for soil dynamics is the focus of the book. This book seeks to provide an up-to-date account on the state-of-the-art research within this topical field.
Download Remote Sensing Advances for Earth System Science Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
This book presents cutting-edge remote sensing research, outlining the advanced use of European Space Agency (ESA) satellite data in the context of climate change. The ESA, through its Support to Science Element (STSE) Programme, funds a network of young post-doc scientists pursuing 2-year cutting-edge research projects in the field of remote sensing. This “Changing Earth Science Network” focuses on the exploitation of Earth Observation (EO) data to address major issues concerning the broader context of climate change in five scientific research domains: the oceans, atmosphere, cryosphere, land and solid earth.
Download Functioning and Management of European Beech Ecosystems Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Temperate forests cover large areas of Europe and perform a number of important functions such as the regulation of energy and matter, production of wood and other resources, and conservation of biodiversity and habitats; they also have special signi?cance in social and cultural contexts. Initiated in 1960s, the ?rst International Biological Program (IBP) focused on ‘‘the biological basis of productivity and human welfare. ’’ As the German contribution to the IBP, ecosystem research has been carried out since 1966 in the Solling area (Ellenberg H. , Ecological Studies 2, 1971), an upland region in Northwest Germany. This study provided clear evidence that the stability of forest ecosystems was threatened by the high inputs of at- spheric pollutants. This promoted many interdisciplinary research programs which were coordinated by Prof. Dr. Bernhard Ulrich and the Forest Ecosystems Research Center of the University of Go ̈ttingen. This involved, in addition to the Solling site, the establishment of two other sites for long-term monitoring of ecosystem pro- ̈ cesses. The two contrasting sites were established in 1980 at Gottinger Wald on base-rich calcareous soil and in 1989 at Zierenberg on volcanic soil. These projects were funded initially by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology (BMBF) as interdisciplinary projects under the titles: ‘‘Conditions of Stability of Forest Ecosystems’’ (1989–1993), and ‘‘Dynamics of Forest Ecos- tems’’ (1993–1998). The primary goal of these studies was to quantify the ecolo- cal condition of forests in a changing environment and element ?uxes.
Download Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Providing an up-to-date synthesis of all knowledge relevant to the climate change issue, this book ranges from the basic science documenting the need for policy action to the technologies, economic instruments and political strategies that can be employed in response to climate change. Ethical and cultural issues constraining the societal response to climate change are also discussed. This book provides a handbook for those who want to understand and contribute to meeting this challenge. It covers a very wide range of disciplines - core biophysical sciences involved with climate change (geosciences, atmospheric sciences, ocean sciences, ecology/biology) as well as economics, political science, health sciences, institutions and governance, sociology, ethics and philosophy, and engineering. As such it will be invaluable for a wide range of researchers and professionals wanting a cutting-edge synthesis of climate change issues, and for advanced student courses on climate change.
Download Encyclopedia of the Anthropocene Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Encyclopedia of the Anthropocene presents a currency-based, global synthesis cataloguing the impact of humanity’s global ecological footprint. Covering a multitude of aspects related to Climate Change, Biodiversity, Contaminants, Geological, Energy and Ethics, leading scientists provide foundational essays that enable researchers to define and scrutinize information, ideas, relationships, meanings and ideas within the Anthropocene concept. Questions widely debated among scientists, humanists, conservationists, politicians and others are included, providing discussion on when the Anthropocene began, what to call it, whether it should be considered an official geological epoch, whether it can be contained in time, and how it will affect future generations. Although the idea that humanity has driven the planet into a new geological epoch has been around since the dawn of the 20th century, the term ‘Anthropocene’ was only first used by ecologist Eugene Stoermer in the 1980s, and hence popularized in its current meaning by atmospheric chemist Paul Crutzen in 2000. Presents comprehensive and systematic coverage of topics related to the Anthropocene, with a focus on the Geosciences and Environmental science Includes point-counterpoint articles debating key aspects of the Anthropocene, giving users an even-handed navigation of this complex area Provides historic, seminal papers and essays from leading scientists and philosophers who demonstrate changes in the Anthropocene concept over time
Download Interactions Between Biosphere, Atmosphere and Human Land Use in the Amazon Basin Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
This book offers a panorama of recent scientific achievements produced through the framework of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere programme (LBA) and other research programmes in the Brazilian Amazon. The content is highly interdisciplinary, with an overarching aim to contribute to the understanding of the dynamic biophysical and societal/socio-economic structure and functioning of Amazonia as a regional entity and its regional and global climatic teleconnections. The target readership includes advanced undergraduate and post-graduate students and researchers seeking to untangle the gamut of interactions that the Amazon’s complex biophysical and social system represent.
Download Global Climate Governance Beyond 2012 Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
An assessment of policy options for future global climate governance, written by a team of leading experts from the European Union and developing countries. Global climate governance is at a crossroads. The 1997 Kyoto Protocol was merely a first step, and its core commitments expire in 2012. This book addresses three questions which will be central to any new climate agreement. What is the most effective overall legal and institutional architecture for successful and equitable climate politics? What role should non-state actors play, including multinational corporations, non-governmental organizations, public–private partnerships and market mechanisms in general? How can we deal with the growing challenge of adapting our existing institutions to a substantially warmer world? This important resource offers policy practitioners in-depth qualitative and quantitative assessments of the costs and benefits of various policy options, and also offers academics from wide-ranging disciplines insight into innovative interdisciplinary approaches towards international climate negotiations.
Download The Complete Guide to Climate Change Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
For anyone trying to separate the fact from the fiction, The Complete Guide to Climate Change is an indispensable resource. Taking you through the A to Z of the key scientific, geographical and socio-political issues involved in the study of the environment and the implications of mankind’s effect upon it, topics covered include: environmental Science – the Carbon Cycle and the "Greenhouse Gases" the impacts of climate change on life, land and sea mitigation strategies from carbon capture to carbon taxes the Kyoto Protocol and UNFCC renewable fuel sources, from wind to solar power. Including guides to the latest scientific and governmental thinking on climate change, this book will tell you all you need to know about perhaps the biggest issue facing mankind today.
Download Environmental Impacts of Modern Agriculture Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Modern agriculture must seek to feed the world's growing population with little or no cost to the Environment. Modern agriculture is capable of producing greater yields than ever before, but intensification of agriculture does come at a price. This comprehensive volume examines the environmental impact made by agriculture in the 21st Century, looking forward to the future with the lessons of the past. Key chapters include impacts of agriculture upon soil quality, greenhouse gas budgets, water-borne pathogens, surface water chemistry, groundwater, agricultural pesticides and the environment, balancing the environmental consequences of agriculture with the needs for food security and positive and negative aspects of agricultural production of biofuels. A fundamental reference for advanced students, researchers, practitioners and policy makers working in the field or related areas.
Download Soil Management and Climate Change Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Soil Management and Climate Change: Effects on Organic Carbon, Nitrogen Dynamics, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions provides a state of the art overview of recent findings and future research challenges regarding physical, chemical and biological processes controlling soil carbon, nitrogen dynamic and greenhouse gas emissions from soils. This book is for students and academics in soil science and environmental science, land managers, public administrators and legislators, and will increase understanding of organic matter preservation in soil and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Given the central role soil plays on the global carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles and its impact on greenhouse gas emissions, there is an urgent need to increase our common understanding about sources, mechanisms and processes that regulate organic matter mineralization and stabilization, and to identify those management practices and processes which mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, helping increase organic matter stabilization with suitable supplies of available N. Provides the latest findings about soil organic matter stabilization and greenhouse gas emissions Covers the effect of practices and management on soil organic matter stabilization Includes information for readers to select the most suitable management practices to increase soil organic matter stabilization
Download Novel Methods for Monitoring and Managing Land and Water Resources in Siberia Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
This book presents an analysis of land and water resources in Siberia, initially characterizing the landscapes, their ecosystems, crucial processes, human impacts on soil and water quality, and the status quo of available research. Further chapters deal with modern monitoring and management methods that can lead to a significant knowledge shift and initiate sustainable soil and water resources use. These include soil hydrological laboratory measurement methods; process-based field evaluation methods for land and water quality; remote sensing and GIS technology-based landscape monitoring methods; process and ecosystem modeling approaches; methods of resource and process evaluation and functional soil mapping; and tools for controlling agricultural land use systems. More than 15 of these concrete monitoring and management tools can immediately be incorporated into research and practice. Maintaining the functions of great landscapes for future generations will be the reward for these efforts.
Download Climate Vulnerability Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Climate change has been the subject of thousands of books and magazines, scientific journals, and newspaper articles daily. It’s a subject that can be very political and emotional, often blurring the lines between fact and fiction. The vast majority of research, studies, projections and recommendations tend to focus on the human influence on climate change and global warming as the result of CO2 emissions, often to the exclusion of other threats that include population growth and the stress placed on energy sources due to emerging global affluence. Climate Vulnerability seeks to strip away the politics and emotion that surround climate change and will assess the broad range of threats using the bottom up approach—including CO2 emissions, population growth, emerging affluence, and many others—to our five most critical resources: water, food, ecosystems, energy, and human health. Inclusively determining what these threats are while seeking preventive measures and adaptations is at the heart of this unique reference work. Takes a Bottom-Up approach, addressing climate change and the threat to our key resources at the local level first and globally second, providing a more accurate and inclusive approach. Includes extensive cross-referencing, which is key to readers as new connections between factors can be discovered. Cuts across a number of disciplines and will appeal to Biological Science, Earth & Environmental Science, Ecology, and Social Science, comprehensively addressing climate change and other threats to our key resources from multiple perspectives
Download Climate Change Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
"This publication provides the latest scientific knowledge on a series of climate change topics relevant to Australia and the world. It draws on peer-reviewed literature contributed to by thousands of researchers ... Climate change is the greatest ecological, economic, and social challenge of our time. Climate change research over many years shows links between human activities and warming of the atmosphere and oceans. This warming has caused changes to the climate system, such as changes in rain and wind patterns, and reductions in Arctic sea ice. Climate change adaptation involves taking action to adapt to climate change and to plan and prepare for the risk of future change. Climate change mitigation refers to actions that aim to limit greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, either by reducing emissions or by increasing the amount of carbon dioxide stored in natural sinks."--Publisher description.
Download Growth and Defence in Plants Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Plants use resources, i.e. carbon, nutrients, water and energy, either for growth or to defend themselves from biotic and abiotic stresses. This volume provides a timely understanding of resource allocation and its regulation in plants, linking the molecular with biochemical and physiological-level processes. Ecological scenarios covered include competitors, pathogens, herbivores, mycorrhizae, soil microorganisms, carbon dioxide/ozone regimes, nitrogen and light availabilities. The validity of the “Growth-Differentiation Balance Hypothesis” is examined and novel theoretical concepts and approaches to modelling plant resource allocation are discussed. The results presented can be applied in plant breeding and engineering, as well as in resource-efficient stand management in agriculture and forestry.
Download North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
This book offers an up-to-date review of our current understanding of climate change in the North Sea and adjacent areas, as well as its impact on ecosystems and socio-economic sectors. It provides a detailed assessment of climate change based on published scientific work compiled by independent international experts from climate-related disciplines such as oceanography, atmospheric sciences, marine and terrestrial ecology, using a regional evaluation and review process similar to that of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It provides a comprehensive overview of all aspects of our changing climate, discussing a wide range of topics including past, current and future climate change, and climate-related changes in marine, terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. It also explores the impact of climate change on socio-economic sectors such as fisheries, agriculture, coastal zone management, coastal protection, urban climate, recreation/tourism, offshore activities/energy, and air pollution.
Download Coastal Wetlands Book in PDF, Epub and Kindle
Coastal Wetlands, Second Edition: An Integrated and Ecosystem Approach provides an understanding of the functioning of coastal ecosystems and the ecological services that they provide. As coastal wetlands are under a great deal of pressure from the dual forces of rising sea levels and the intervention of human populations, both along the estuary and in the river catchment, this book covers important issues, such as the destruction or degradation of wetlands from land reclamation and infrastructures, impacts from the discharge of pollutants, changes in river flows and sediment supplies, land clearing, and dam operations. Covers climate change and its influence on coastal wetland form and function Provides a fully updated and expanded resource, including new chapters on modeling, management and the impact of climate change Contains full-color figures of wetlands and estuaries in different parts of the world