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Biographic Memoirs: Volume 61 contains the biographies of deceased members of the National Academy of Sciences and bibliographies of their published works. Each biographical essay was written by a member of the Academy familiar with the professional career of the deceased. For historical and bibliographical purposes, these volumes are worth returning to time and again.
The molecular mechanisms underlying the fact that a crystal can take a variety of external forms is something we have come to understand only in the last few decades. This is due to recent developments in theoretical and experimental investigations of crystal growth mechanisms. Morphology of Crystals is divided into three separately available volumes. Part A contains chapters on roughening transition; equilibrium form; step pattern theory; modern PBC; and surface microtopography. This part provides essentially theoretical treatments of the problem, particularly the solid-liquid interface. Part B contains chapters on ultra-fine particles; minerals; transition from polyhedral to dendrite; theory of dendrite; and snow crystals. All chapters are written by world leaders in their respective areas, and some can be seen as representing the essence of a life's work. This is the first English-language work which covers all aspects of the morphology of crystals - a topic which has attracted top scientific minds for centuries. As such, it is indispensable for anyone seeking an answer to a question relating to this fascinating problem: mineralogists, petrologists, crystallographers, materials scientists, workers in solid-state physics and chemistry, etc. In Parts A: Fundamentals and B: Fine Particles, Minerals and Snow equilibrium and kinetic properties of crystals are generally approached from an `atomistic' point of view. In contrast, Part C: The Geometry of Crystal Growth follows the alternative and complementary `geometrical' description, where bulk phases are considered as continuous media and their interfaces as mathematical surfaces with orientation-dependent properties. Equations of motion for a crystal surface are expressed in terms of vector and tensor operators working on surface free energy and growth rate, both expressed as functions of surface orientation and driving force, or `affinity' for growth. This approach emphasizes the interrelation between equilibrium and kinetic behavior. Part 1 establishes the theoretical framework. Part 2 gives a construction toolbox for explicit (analytic) functions. An extra chapter is devoted to experimental techniques for measuring such functions: a new approach to sphere growth experiments. The emphasis throughout is on principles and new concepts. Audience: Advanced readers familiar with traditional aspects of crystal growth theory. Can be used as the basis for an advanced course, provided supplementation is provided in the areas of atomistic models of the advancing surface, diffusion fields, etc.
By introducing the superspace formalism, the methods of structure analysis of incommensurate structures have achieved in the past few years a full maturity. The superspace description is also becoming in the field of quasicrystals the main tool to approach a systematic method of structure determination of these materials. According to the program of the Workshop, these proceedings are an introduction to the formalism and practice of structure determination of modulated structures (incommensurate and commensurate) and quasiperiodic systems, mainly under the unifying framework of the superspace description. Accordingly, a large set of tutorial introductory chapters written by well-known specialists are included. The main refinement programs available for incommensurate structures are presented by their authors. The book also contains the most recent contributions from more than thirty of the participants in the Workshop, focusing on the problem of the structure analysis of these typical materials by means of diffraction methods.
This book serves as a self-contained reference source for engineers, materials scientists, and physicists with an interest in relaxation phenomena. It is made accessible to students and those new to the field by the inclusion of both elementary and advanced math techniques, as well as chapter opening summaries that cover relevant background information and enhance the book's pedagogical value. These summaries cover a wide gamut from elementary to advanced topics. The book is divided into three parts. The opening part, on mathematics, presents the core techniques and approaches. Parts II and III then apply the mathematics to electrical relaxation and structural relaxation, respectively. Part II discusses relaxation of polarization at both constant electric field (dielectric relaxation) and constant displacement (conductivity relaxation), topics that are not often discussed together. Part III primarily discusses enthalpy relaxation of amorphous materials within and below the glass transition temperature range. It takes a practical approach inspired by applied mathematics in which detailed rigorous proofs are eschewed in favor of describing practical tools that are useful to scientists and engineers. Derivations are however given when these provide physical insight and/or connections to other material. A self-contained reference on relaxation phenomena Details both the mathematical basis and applications For engineers, materials scientists, and physicists
The classic book that presents a unified approach to crystallography and the defects found within crystals, revised and updated This new edition of Crystallography and Crystal Defects explains the modern concepts of crystallography in a clear, succinct manner and shows how to apply these concepts in the analyses of point, line and planar defects in crystalline materials. Fully revised and updated, this book now includes: Original source references to key crystallographic terms familiar to materials scientists Expanded discussion on the elasticity of cubic materials New content on texture that contains more detail on Euler angles, orientation distribution functions and an expanded discussion on examples of textures in engineering materials Additional content on dislocations in materials of symmetry lower than cubic An expanded discussion of twinning which includes the description and classification of growth twins The inclusion and explanation of results from atomistic modelling of twin boundaries Problem sets with new questions, detailed worked solutions, supplementary lecture material and online computer programs for crystallographic calculations. Written by authors with extensive lecturing experience at undergraduate level, Crystallography and Crystal Defects, Third Edition continues to take its place as the core text on the topic and provides the essential resource for students and researchers in metallurgy, materials science, physics, chemistry, electrical, civil and mechanical engineering.